Space and time; units and dimensions. Kinematics. Fundamental laws of mechanics. Statistics and dynamics; work and energy. Conservation laws. Moments and energy of rotation; simple harmonic motion; motion of simple systems; Elasticity, Hooke’s law, Young’s, shear and bulk moduli, hydrostatics; pressure, buoyancy, Archimedes’ principle. Surface tension. Adhesion, cohesion, capillarity, drops and bubbles. Temperature; heat, gas laws; Laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases. Sound; Types and properties of waves as applied to sound and light energies. Superposition of waves. Propagation of sound in gases, solids and liquids and their properties. The unified spectra analysis of waves. Applications. Pre-requisites.

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- Units: 2
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This is an introductory to practical physics; this introductory course emphasizes quantitative measurements, the treatment of measurement errors and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques is employed. The experiments include studies of meters, the oscilloscope, mechanical systems, electrical and mechanical resonant systems, light, heat, viscosity, etc. covered in PHY 101 and PHY 102. However, emphases are placed on the basic physical techniques for observation, measurements, data collection, analysis and deduction.

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- Units: 2
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Electrostatics; conductors and currents; dielectrics; magnetic fields and electromagnetic Induction; Maxwell’s equations; electromagnetic oscillations and waves; Coulomb’s law; methods of charging; Ohm’s law and analysis of DC circuits; AC voltages applied to inductors, capacitors and resistance.

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- Units: 2
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Special Relativity; Defects in Newtonian Mechanics; the speed of light; the Lorentz Transformation; transformation of velocities. Experimental basis of quantum Theory: Black body radiation; electrons and quanta; Bohr’s theory of atomic structure; De Broglie hypothesis; the uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s equation and simple applications. Compton effect; thermionic emission; radioactivity; measurement and detection of charged particles (including the treatment of detectors); x-rays: nature and spectra.

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- Units: 2
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D.C Circuits: Kirchhoff’s laws, sources of emf and current, network analysis and circuit theorems. A.C. Circuits. Inductance. capacitance, the transformer, sinusoidal wave-forms, RMS and peak values, power, impedance and admittance, series RLC circuits. Q factor, Resonance, Network analysis and circuit theorems, filters. Electronics: semiconductors, the pn junction, amplification and the transistor; field effect transistors, bipolar transistors, Characteristics and equivalent circuits, amplifiers, feedback, oscillators, signal generators. There should be alternate week laboratory work.

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- Units: 2
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Energy and Power; Principles demands and outlook; transformation of energy and its costs; thermal pollution; electrical energy from fossil fuels; hydroelectric generation: Principles and problems. Costs, capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency, new environmental effects. Electrical energy from nuclear reactors; energy in the future breeder reactors; fusion power, solar power, geothermal power, tidal power etc. Promise and problems.

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- Units: 2
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This is a laboratory course for the second year student. The laboratory course consists of a group of experiments drawn from diverse areas of Physics (Optics, Electromagnetism, Mechanics, and Modern Physics etc). It is accompanied by seminar studies of standard experimental technique and the analysis of famous and challenging experiments.

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- Units: 2
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Classical mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with motion of bodies based on Newton’ laws of motion, it does not make use of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. This course emphasize on introduction to classical mechanics; space and time; straight line kinematics; motion in a plane; forces and equilibrium; particle dynamics; universal gravitation; collisions; conservative forces; inertia forces and non-inertia frames; central force motions; rigid bodies and rotational dynamics, kinetic theory, equi-partition of energy; diffusion rate; mean free path; viscosity; heat transfer; measurement of temperature.

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- Units: 2
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Classical electromagnetism is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model. This course emphasize on electrostatics and field concepts; electric currents and magnetic fields; properties of electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic wave spectrum and application; Interference: Young’s slit, Lloyd’s mirror and Newton’s rings; Thick lens optics.

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- Units: 2
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