Course Title Xenobiotics And Immunochemistry
Course Level 200
Credit Unit 2


A xenobiotic is a compound that is foreign to the body. Xenobiotic includes chemicals, food additives, poisons, toxins, certain drugs, environmental pollutants, pesticides and other foreign substances. The detoxification of foreign compounds in the body also known as metabolism of xenobiotics from toxic to less harmful substances that are easily excreted from the body is the centre of the xenobiotic aspect of this course. 

Immunology is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences that deals with the study of the immune system. The immune system carries the body defense mechanisms against invasion or infection that can result in diseases. Therefore, this course will cover basic immunology and the understanding of the mechanisms behind how the immune system protects us against infections, and sometimes might damage our bodies, as in autoimmune diseases and allergies.


The student will learn about

  • Sources of environmental pollution and other toxic foreign compounds

  • Phases of xenobiotic metabolism in the body 

  • Detoxification mechanisms 

  • Biochemical basis of drug action, antimetabolites and antibiotics 

  • Drug of dependence and factor modifying drug action  

  • History of immunology

  • Types of immunity (innate immunity and acquired/adaptive immunity)

  • Cells and tissues of the immune system 

  • Antibody types, structures and functions

  • Nature of antigens, principle of antigenic tolerance, haptens, antigenic determinants sites, and adjuvants 

  • Complement system 

  • Disorders of the immune system (e.g. hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency); 

  • Techniques in immunology and immunochemistry 

  • Vaccine and immunization

  • Cancer Immunology


On completion of the course, the student is expected to:

  1. Identify existing sources of environmental pollution and other toxic foreign compounds

  2. Explain the metabolism (en- or detoxification) of xenobiotics by the action of enzymes located in various organs

  3. Understand the development and functions of cells and molecules involved in immunity 

  4. Describe the basic mechanisms in the response to antigen invasion or infection 

  5. Understand the use of antibodies in immunological techniques in the diagnosis of antigen-antibody related diseases

  6. Gain knowledge of the fundamental principles in the development and use of vaccines