Course Level 400
Credit Unit 2

The nature and importance of research pure and applied research what is a theory, hypothesis, testing of hypothesis, sampling and randomness, analysis of date the essential parts of a research 

paper, collection and the experimental research methods and abstract, bibliography, appendix and study of selected reference, laboratory discipline animal house and handling of animals.

Introduction to statistics and statistical methods; Types & sources of statistics. Variables and types of statistical data. Methods of data collection; Applications and uses of biostatistics in science. Methods of descriptive statistics: Data presentation, frequency characteristics; Measures of Central Tendency; Measures of location and dispersion. Introduction to elementary probability theory: probability distribution; Binomial & Poisson. Normal distribution & standard score/ Z score. Sampling theory: sampling distribution, sample means & proportion; standard errors. Test of Statistics & Test of Hypothesis: procedure for testing hypothesis & test of significance; interpretation of outcomes for the level of significance. ANOVA: Analysis of Variance I, Chi square (X2) test; Correlation and Linear regression: correlation analysis; Spearman rank correlation. Linear Regression: regression analysis; equation of a straight line; scatter diagram.